Tamil Nadu, India
Tamil Nadu is one of the five south Indian states which is the tenth largest state by area (130,058 sq. km) and sixth largest by population (72,147,030). It is home to Tamilians who speak Tamil, one of the oldest and longest surviving classical languages in the world. The capital of Tamil Nadu is Chennai which is also the largest city of the state.
Located in the southernmost part of the India, Tamil Nadu is surrounded by the Western Ghats in the west, the Eastern Ghats in the north, the Bay of Bengal in the east, the Gulf of Munnar and the Palk Strait to the south-east, and the Indian Ocean in the south. Tamil Nadu state has a long run history and is home to several historic buildings, multi-religious pilgrimage sites, hill stations, beaches, and three World Heritage Sites.
Tamil Nadu Language and Population
Tamil is the official language of Tamil Nadu, and is spoken across the state, in many different dialects that are local to specific regions. Apart from Tamil, English is largely spoken especially in business and professional environments.
Tamil Nadu has a population is 7.88 Crore (78.8 million) people. Hindus, Muslims, and Christians are the three largest religious groups in the total population of the state.
88% of the people in the state are Hindus, followed by more than 6.1% of Christians and about 6% Muslims. Other religions followed by people in the state include Jainism, Sikhism and Buddhism which come to less than 1% of the population
History of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the most ancient places in India. The land in this area is said to be centuries old, existing through paleolithic, Neolithic, and iron ages. The land was ruled in the medieval period by popular empires like the Pandyas, Pallavas, Cholas and Cheras – all of whom have influenced the culture, literature, art, poetry, music, and dances in Tamil Nadu.
After this, European colonization happened in the state between 1750-1858, when the French East India company invaded and later the British empire ruled from 1858-1947. In these periods, the state was known as Madras state, but it was renamed in 1969 as Tamil Nadu and its capital city was named “Madras”. In the year 1996, Madras was renamed as Chennai.
The state of Tamil Nadu has many cities that are grouped into a total of 38 districts, 15 municipal corporations and 146 municipalities (i.e., single administrative divisions that have the powers of self-government as granted by national and regional laws). Some popular cities in Tamil Nadu include:
Hinduism is predominant in Tamil Nadu, and the state has over 38,000 Hindu temples. Out of these about 33,000 are ancient, many which are anywhere between 800 to 5000 years old. Bharatanatyam, which India’s most popular classical dance form, and Carnatic music (South Indian classical music) originated in Tamil Nadu and are both widely practiced and performed all over the state.
Kancheepuram district is known for its pure silk garments (sarees especially). These are very popular all through the country, especially in south India and are a crucial part of wedding attire here. Most people here are highly religious and traditional; and love going to temples, wearing flowers on their hair. Most women wear saree (adults) which is their traditional attire.
Movies and motion pictures are a primary source of entertainment here and accounts for the state’s GDP– and people love catching the earliest shows of movies in theatres, and often clap, whistle, sing and dance along the shows.
Tamil Nadu Food
Tamil Nadu’s cuisine has many vegetarian dishes as the state’s vegetarian population is relatively higher than that of the meat eaters. Although vegetarianism is predominant, meat and sea food are also eaten largely. Rice is the staple food here along with spicy curries. The Mulligatawny soup that’s eaten in many other countries also has its origins here – it is a Tamil word that literally translates to Pepper water (Milagu – pepper and Tanni – water). Some more popular dishes of Tamil Nadu’s cuisine include –
- Sambar : A sour and spicy stew made from lentils, vegetables, tamarind juice, herbs and spices.
- Rasam : Another sour and spicier stew made from some lentils and a lot waterier than sambar – may have tomatoes but no other vegetables.
- Idli : A steamed rice cake prepared with fermented batter of rice and black gram.
- Dosai : A pancake made with fermented batter of rice and black gram; also known as Dosa.
- Uttapam : A savory thick pancake made with rice and urad lentil batter and topped with some vegies.
- Banana Bonda : A fried dough ball with banana flavor.
- Murukku : A savory snack which means ‘twisted’ and is made from a mixture of urad lentil, rice, salt, water, and cumin seeds batter and fried in twisted circle shape.
- Lemon Rice : Fried rice seasoned with onions, tomatoes, curry leaf, red chili, salt, and lemon juice.
- Paruppu Payasam : A sweet dish made with roasted, cooked, and mashed moong dal and jaggery syrup is added to it.
- Pongal : A staple meal for every auspicious festival in Tamil Nadu, Pongal is made with rice, sweet milk, nuts, and cardamoms.
- Puliodarai : Tamarind flavored rice that can be translated to ‘sour tasting rice’.
- Filter Kaapi : Hot water is added to coffee grounds in the coffee filter and milk is then added to the coffee concoction that comes out along with sugar.
- Chicken Chettinad : Chicken marinated in yoghurt and a variety of spices and then cooked with onion and tomato gravy along with some grated coconut.
*Idli and Dosa are popular breakfast items in Tamil Nadu that are loved and relished along with sambar or chutney (a spicy, savory condiment made from vegetables, roasted pulses, peanuts, coconut, chilies etc.) throughout south India and some parts of north, east and west too.
Tourist Places in Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is one of the most visited states in India as it offers something to every visitor searching for different getaway sources. From ancient temples to rock-cut caves, lofty hills to waterfalls, beaches to churches and cafes, Tamil Nadu has everything. The best tourist places in Tamil Nadu are brimming with a plethora of breath-taking and amazing marvels of architecture and nature which gives you an excuse to pack your bags and head for a tour. Below is a list of the best tourist places to visit in Tamil Nadu which are worth exploring.
- Rameshwaram : A beautiful island town in Tamil Nadu which is separated by a small Pamban Channel from Sri Lanka and is known as the place where Lord Rama created a bridge across the sea to Sri Lanka.
- Yercaud : A hill luscious station in the Eastern Ghats commonly called as the ‘Ooty of the Poor’, this region has a history dating back to the British era and is a delight for the nature lover.
- Kodaikanal : A honeymoon destination in Tamil Nadu, this Lakeside resort town has a pleasant climate, lush green cliffs, and waterfalls that make it a stunning getaway location.
- Ooty : A popular honeymoon and tourist destination across the country, Ooty is a picturesque getaway with breath-taking greenery, hills, and pleasing climate year-round, which was the summer headquarters of the East India Company.
- Chennai : Capital of Tamil Nadu and formerly Madras, Chennai is a city immersed in traditions, culture, and modern life to suit every visitor.
- Auroville : A peaceful town close to Pondicherry, the French Colony, and was founded by a disciple of Aurobindo known for its serene environment and beautiful landscape.
- Hogenakkal : Located in Dharmapuri, Hogenakkal is a beautiful waterfall where the Kaveri River splits into multiple streams of waterfalls which gives it an ethereal look.
- Mahabalipuram : A historically famous town known for its intricately carved temples and architecture along with rock-cut caves, Mahabalipuram sees tourists exploring its ancient architecture and the serene beach.
- Kanyakumari : The southernmost tip of the Indian peninsula, Kanyakumari is bordered by Arabian sea, Indian ocean, and the Bay of Bengal and has several ancient temples.
- Kanchipuram : Known for the beautiful Kanchipuram sarees and also referred to as the ‘Golden City of a Thousand Temples, Kanchipuram witnesses a lot of tourists who want to explore the ancient Hindu culture and heritage.
- Madurai : Known as the culture capital of India and one of the oldest inhabited cities of India, it was planned and built in a lotus shape and is called as the Lotus City.
- Coimbatore : Also known as the Manchester of South India and the second largest city in Tamil Nadu, Coimbatore has several temples and has the charm and hustle-bustle of a modern city as well.
- Thanjavur : Also known as Tanjore or the city of temples, Thanjavur has a cultural significance and is famous for its Tanjore paintings, antiques, and handicrafts, textiles, sarees, and Carnatic music across the country.
- Coonoor : One of the three quaint hill station in the state, Coonoor is loved for its serene landscape with tea plantations and its pleasant weather which can be chilly during winters at night.
- Velankanni : A hamlet tucked away on the coast of Bay of Bengal, Velankanni is famous as a Roman Catholic pilgrim centre and houses Our Lady of Good Health aka Mother Mary.
Places to Visit in Tamil Nadu
The sprawling state of Tamil Nadu has several places to visit from ancient and intricately carved temples to monuments, beaches, gardens, wildlife parks, and whatnot. But below is a list of some of the best places to visit in Tamil Nadu out of the many that you can visit without a doubt for a soul-searching experience.
- Monuments of Mahabalipuram : A UNESCO World Heritage Site, these include the magnificent Shore Temple and 400 other ancient religious structures.
- Madurai Meenakshi Amman Temple : Dedicated to Goddess Parvati, it is an iconic temple with four main entrances, towers facing in four directions, 1000 pillared hall and holy golden lotus tank.
- Brihadeeshwara Temple : One of the largest temples of South India and is dedicated to Lord Shiva, it is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site showcasing sculptures, inscriptions, and a huge tower.
- Vivekananda Rock Memorial : A stunning architecture perched on a small island of Kanyakumari offering a serene ambiance and highlighting the noble deeds of Swami Vivekananda.
- Dhanushkodi Beach Point : A beach point at the tip of the Rameshwaram Island where the Bay of Bengal meets the Indian Ocean.
- Kodaikanal Lake : A manmade lake in Kodaikanal hill station with a dense growth of macrophytes of al types.
- Marina Beach : A natural urban beach along the Bay of Bengal and is 6km long, making it world’s second longest urban each.
- Arulmigu Ramanatha Swamy Temple : A holy shrine housing one of the twelve jyotirlingas of Lord Shiva and known for having the world’s longest set of corridors.
- Dhyanalinga Temple : Located in the premises of Isha Foundation, the temple is a meditative space with a massive Shiva statue and is open for all belief and faith.
- Kapaleeshwarar Temple : A beautiful temple dedicated to Lord Shiva with impressive Dravidian style of architecture.
- Government Botanical Garden Ooty : A beautiful botanical garden spread in 55 hectares and divided in several sections, showcasing a myriad of flora including a fossilized tree trunk of over 20 million years old.
- Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple : Dedicated to Lord Vishnu, it is revered as the first, foremost and most significant of the 108 Divyadesams and has a stunning architecture.
Museums and Art Galleries
Tamil Nadu has some of the most fascinating museums and art galleries which showcase the state’s history, culture, art and craft along with the heritage of the country. Here are some of the famous museums and art galleries of Tamil Nadu:
- Gandhi Museum Madurai : A museum dedicated to Mahatma Gandhi showcasing manuscripts, paintings, old sculptures along with blood-stained clothes of Gandhi Ji when he was assassinated.
- A.P.J. Abdul Kalam House Rameshwaram : An ideal place to glimpse into the life of the ever-loved APJ Abdul Kalam which houses several awards and pictures of the former president.
- India Seashell Museum Mahabhalipuram : A museum displaying over 40,000 seashells both rare and unique along with a market, an aquarium with ocean fishes, and a restaurant.
- Government Museum Chennai : A significant museum showcasing archaeological items, sculptures, botany, geology, and anthropology in its 46 galleries.
- Chennai Rail Museum : A museum showcasing an astounding presentation and a fabulous collection of rails and the rail heritage of India since its inception.
- Cholamandalam Artists’ Village : It is the largest artists’ community in India and offers some stunning work of art and a glimpse of the fascinating culture. It is spread in 100 acres of land and has two galleries and a museum with some great works of art by the local artists of Tamil Nadu and other states.
- Focus Art Gallery Chennai : A renowned art gallery showcasing works of some of the best international and national artists and houses exhibitions on a variety of modern topics and trends.
- Lalit Kala Akademy Chennai : Run by Ministry of Culture, GOI, this is known as the premium institute for fine arts in India showcasing some stunning contemporary artworks and a platform to study modern art.
- The Faraway Tree Art Gallery : One of the famous art galleries focusing on modern art from some of the best artists from South India.
- Forum Art Gallery, Chennai : Known for a diverse assortment of contemporary art forms and regularly hosts exhibits in many mediums as well performances.
Events and Festivals of Tamil Nadu
Tamil Nadu is an ancient state that has preserved its culture and heritage through several traditions, festivals, and rituals that are followed even today. Several festivals of different spiritual value and essence of culture are celebrated around the state which gives the state its unique identity. Below are some of the famous festivals and events of Tamil Nadu which showcase the vibrant and rich culture of the state:
- Pongal Festival : Celebrated for 4 consecutive days, Pongal is the harvest festival of Tamil Nadu and one of the most important. Each day has its own ritual and importance with worship of Lord Indra on day one, offerings of sugarcane and coconut into river on day two, cow worshipping on day three, and exchange of gifts and meeting relatives on day four.
- Natyanjali Dance Festival : The festival is celebrated to pay tribute to Lord Nataraj, the celestial dancing form of Lord Shiva, who is believed to be the Lord of Dances. The Nataraj temple in Chidambaram, Tamil Nadu is the place where one can observe this festival in February or March with over 500 dancers from across the country performing in classical dances to give their offerings.
- Jallikattu Bull Festival : A part of the Pongal festival in Jallikattu festival, a bull is released in open ground amongst the crowd and the participants try to grab its hump to climb on it to remove the flag placed on its horns. It is a bull training traditional sport played in village of Tamil Nadu.
- Karthigai Deepam : Karthigai Deepam is a festival of lights which is celebrated in the Tamil calendar month of November or December. The moon aligns with a constellation named Karthigai and thus name. People buy new clothes, decorate their houses with diyas lit with ghee and camphor and buy gifts and meet their relatives. Fairs are organized round the state which is a sight to see.
- Chitri Rai Festival : It is a festival where reenactment of the wedding of Lord Sundareswarar and Goddess Meenakshi takes place in Madurai and is observed in the month of April/May.
- Mahamaham Festival : This festival is celebrated in Kombakonam town in Tamil Nadu in every 12 years where people gather near the sacred Mahamaham Tank and take a bath. Jupiter enters the sign Leo in every 12 years and purification of sins take place when one takes a bath in that auspicious tank according to the belief.
- Deepavali : This is a common festival of lights celebrated across most regions and states of India. The Tamil communities commemorate the defeat of Narakasura who represent the evil and light up the diyas known as Agal Vilakus.
Art and Dance
Tamil Nadu is home to a rich culture and thousand-year-old heritage and is known for its art and entertainment. It has a myriad of cuisine, temples, architecture, Carnatic music, art and dance forms. Many types of group and solo dance forms are performed here and have been in practice since ages. Here are some of the famous dance forms of Tamil Nadu:
- Bharatnatyam : It is India’s oldest dance forms and one of the main dance forms of Tamil Nadu, previously performed in temples to worship Lord Shiva. The words Bhava, Raag, Tala, and Natya when put together makes Bharatnatyam which focuses on hand gestures, footwork, and facial expressions.
- Karagattam : A traditional dance form of Tamil Nadu which entails balancing pots made of metal or a lump of clay on the head of the dancers. The dance form is performed to worship Goddess Amman.
- Kavadi Aattam : This is performed by men which involves carrying Kavadi (burdens) through the pilgrimage. Among the various types of Kavadi the most common is a pot of milk and some of them are very heavy. This dance is performed to worship Lord Murugan.
- Devaraattam : Performed by several men and women for the Tamil kings and thir army after their victory, the dancers carry handkerchief in their hands and swing it and the lead dancer wears a counterfeit beard and mask. Presently, this dance form is only performed on the beats of Urumi Melam, Thappu Melam, and Flute and does not have any music or song.
- Mayil Aattam : Also known as Peacock dance, this is usually performed by women, and they wear a blue coloured dress along with peacock feathers and a beak. It is performed in Hindu temples and offered to Lord Murugan.
Nightlife (pubs, clubs, and lounges)
Tamil Nadu is not known for its nightlife, but it is far from truth. The traditional state has some of the best nightclubs and restaurants that serve the night owls till late night. Cities like Chennai, Pondicherry and Coimbatore are among the top with vibrant lounges filled with good music, food, and ambiance for a perfect night out. Here are some of the best nightclubs in Tamil Nadu:
- 10 Downing Street : It is an iconic gastropub in the heart of Chennai and offers global fare and cocktails along with DJs and a range of themed nights. Enjoy alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks while sitting on the plush sofas with soothing music going in the background.
- Pasha-The Park : Pasha is a creative and Persian style nightclub in the Park Chennai Hotel featuring delicious cocktails and an awesome dance floor which makes it one of the favorite nightspots among the youngsters.
- Gatsby 2000 : A high octane night club in Chennai that offers drinks, DJ music and a vibrant dance floor to light it on fire. With a range of alcoholic drinks, some as old as 50-years, Gatsby 2000 is perfect for a weekend delight to eat, drink, and dance.
- The Flying Elephant : It is a trendy upscale restaurant that is open till late night and serves food from a globally inspired menu and delicious cocktails. The ambiance is chic for trendy Instagram photos and the restaurant also offers brunch on Sundays which is a special menu.
- The Leather Bar - The Park : An exclusive nightclub with amazing food, drinks, and ambiance, the Leather Bar is a sophisticated lounge bar to enjoy a fun night out. The interiors are decorated with black leather floors contrasting well with eh suede walls and the DJ graces the place with a fun-filled energy.
- The Moon and Sixpence : This cozy Irish pub with a relaxed atmosphere is ideal for spending some time with friends and family. It offers delightful Irish food, lip-smacking cocktails, and live music during weekends.
The South Indian state of Tamil Nadu is known for its rich heritage, culture, ancient architecture, and not to forget the delicious cuisine. From small stalls serving hot and piping snacks to restaurants serving the local cuisine along with the cuisines from all over India, Tamil Nadu has several food outlets where you can satisfy your hunger quench. Here are some of the best restaurants in Tamil Nadu:
- Place to Bee : A humble restaurant serving local cuisine along with Italian, vegetarian and non-vegetarian cuisine, and soups of all kinds.
- Dimora : A chich restaurant specializing in spicy buffet from India and other cuisines from different countries such as Pasta Alfredo, Nasi Goreng, Indonesian Fiery Rice, sea food, etc.
- Kalam Hot Kitchen Restaurant : Serves fresh and spicy food with non-veg starters such as kebabs, chicken lollipop, noodles, fish finger, wine roast chicken, etc. as its specialities.
- Kumar Mess : A humble family restaurant known for its variety of spicy non-veg and sea food dishes.
- Anjappar Chettinad Restaurant : The global ambassadors of Chettinad dish from Tamil Nadu, the restaurant has around 30 branches across the state and even in other countries.
- Tava : Located in the hill station of Kodaikanal, this restaurant serves spicy vegetarian dishes from south and north Indian cuisine.
- Barbeque Nation Hospitality : With branches all over India, the restaurant presents buffet, starters, main course, and live-grill on the table.
- Junior Kuppana restaurant : A serene restaurant with a chic ambiance and worth your money with a good quality and tasty food serving south Indian cuisine.
- Andhra Curry : The spiciest restaurant in Madurai, it is famous for biriyani and other non-veg dishes.
Malls and Shopping Outlets
Tamil Nadu is of the fastest emerging states in India with modern infrastructure and industries. Along with the ancient architecture, heritage, and age old bustling markets, Tamil Nadu has several big shopping outlets and malls that grace the beauty of this state. Some of the best shopping malls in Tamil Nadu are:
Market Places (Traditional Markets)
When touring Tamil Nadu, don’t forget to visit its markets for an enchanting experience of the local artistry and heritage. The state has some colorful and old markets which sell a variety of items from local handicraft to temple accessories, spices, local textile and different other things. Here is a list of market sin Tamil Nadu that you just can’t miss.
- George Town : A vibrant wholesale market where you can buy anything from vegetables, flowers, spices, electric items, food, etc. at an affordable rate.
- Koyambedu Market : Known for its sheer expansive size, the Koyambedu Market sells vegetables, fruits, and flowers and is the largest perishable market in the whole of Asia with over 3000 stalls of fruits.It is also famous because of its 24-hours operational capability.
- Pondy Bazaar : Pndy bazar is a vibrant market with narrow lanes and kiosks of food to delight the visitors. It offers a lot of variety of shops and is not focused on one type of item which range from clothes, smartphones, shoes, and even food market and you can bargain as well.
- Thyagaraya Nagar Market : The T Nagar Market is one of the most popular domestic markets in Tamil Nadu and is known for a wide range of accessories and sarees. Festivals such as Pongal, Diwali and New Year are celebrated here, and the market gets decorated in light which makes it look even more pleasing to the eyes and the items are sold in very affordable rates.
- Sowcarpet : The ideal market for women looking for handcrafted or designer wears such as lehengas and suits. North India dresses are also sold here at extremely affordable rates which makes for a good option during festivals or functions if you are looking something new.
- Burma Bazaar : Located in Chennai, this market sells daily items which are mainly sold by vendors from Myanmar and thus the name. They are the immigrants who settled here back in the 1960s. Gadgets and perfumes are the main elements of the markets, but some daily household items are also sold here.
Although there are several famous and big shops in whole of Tamil Nadu, some of them are exceptionally good and must be visited to get the best of everything. From designer textiles to electronic, confectionary to handicrafts, these shops in Tamil Nadu are famous in their own cities. Some of the best shops in Tamil Nadu are:
- Pothys Hyper, Chennai
- Saravana shopping mall
- Khadi Bhavan Shopping Centre
- FSM Mart – Cantonment
- Naturally Auroville Boutique
- Moddy's Chocolates - Ooty
- Macs Super Market – Chennai
- Mystical India – Tiruvannamalai
- VgoCart - Antique Brass Collections - Kurumbapalayam
- SVARAM - Musical Instruments and Research – Kottakarai
A terrain as diverse as Tamil Nadu’s, with hilly areas, gushing rivers, beaches, and lofty peaks, fun is inevitable for the ones who love to indulge in some thrilling activities. Tamil Nadu offers a vast range of adventure sports and experiences in different landscapes which also attracts tourists from different places. Some of the best adventure experiences to try in Tamil Nadu are:
- Hill-trekking in Kodaikanal
- Sports racing in Chennai
- Go-karting, ATV and jet-skiing in Chennai
- Surfing at Mahabalipuram
- Paragliding in Yelagiri
- Mountain biking in Ooty
Hotels in Tamil Nadu
Being one of the major tourism states in India, Tamil Nadu sees an influx of tourists year round and accommodates everyone according to their budget. The city boasts of some of the best luxury hotels and resorts in India along with some budget-friendly hotels as well. Here is a list of best hotels in Tamil Nadu for a comfortable and peaceful stay.
Mid-Range to Budget Hotels:
- Anamika Hotel – Near Airport
- Taj Wellington Mews Chennai
- Great Trails Yercaud by GRT Hotels
- Hotel Kodai International
- Le Poshe by Sparsa
- Sathyam Grand Resorts
Luxury or High-End Hotels:
- Taj Coromandel Chennai
- Wild Planet Resort
- ITC Grand Chola Chennai
- Trident Chennai
- Sheraton Grand Chennai Resort and Spa
- The Carlton
- The Leela Palace Chennai
- Courtyard by Marriott Madurai
- The Tamara Kodai
- Hilton Chennai
Deep in historic culture and monuments, Tamil Nadu is a state known for magnificent temples and architecture along with several expansive wildlife parks. The state is a treasure trove for tourists who are wildlife and nature enthusiasts and want to explore not just the architecture but the marvels of nature. Here are some of the best wildlife parks and sanctuaries in Tamil Nadu:
- Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary : Located at the slopes of Nilgiri Hills, Mudumalai National Park is a part of the Niligiri Biosphere Reserve and is a must-visit attraction in Ooty. It has a high diversity of wildlife with 50 fish species, 21 amphibian species, 34 species of reptiles, 200 species of birds, and 50 mammal species.
- Vallanadu Sanctuary : Known as the homeland for the population of Blackbuck antelopes, Vallanadu Sanctuary is a reserved area in the Vallanadu Village and is accorded as one of the significant centuries in the south.
- Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park : Home to 21 small islands, this national park is in the southernmost tip of India and is known as a biosphere reserve in the Indian ocean in the proximity of Tamil Nadu.
- Viralimalai Sanctuary : Renowned for the beautiful wild peacocks dancing around the famous Murugan temple, Viralimalai Sanctuary is in a small town in Tamil Nadu and is one of the must-visit wildlife parks.
- Mukurthi National Park : One of the most pleasing national parks in Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri National Park is located at the western side of the Nilgiri Plateau and was formed to protect the Nilgiri Tahr. It is a Heritage Site with grasslands and shrublands and is home to various endangered species of flora and fauna.
- Guindy National Park : This is the 8th smallest national park in the country located in Chennai, Tamil Nadu and is nestled in the core of the Governor of Tamil Nadu’s estate and harbours a wild variety of wild creatures.
How to Reach
- By Air : Tamil has four international airport – Chennai International Airport, Tiruchirapalli International Airport, Coimbatore International Airport, and Madurai International Airport along with Salem airport and Tuticorin airport as domestic airports which connect all major cities of India and international flights as well.
- By Train : Chennai Central is the main railway station in Tamil Nadu for trains departing north while Chennai Egmore station is the main station for trains going to other south Indian states. Other domestic train stations which connect the inter-cities and other neighboring cities are in Madurai, Katpadi, Tiruchirapalli, Salem, and Coimbatore Junction.
- By Road : NH 220 connect Tamil Nadu to Kerala, NH 67, 207, 209 connect TN to Karnataka, NH 205, 219, and 234 connect the state with Andhra Pradesh and the buses are maintained by the Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation and State Express Transport Corporation.