Jharkhand is a state in eastern India. The state is bordered by the Indian state of Bihar to its north, Uttar Pradesh to its north-west, West Bengal to its east, Chhattisgarh to its west and Odisha to its south.

It is the 15th largest state in India by area, and the 14th largest by population. The name “Jharkhand” literally translates to 'The Land of forests or Land of bushes' – and as the name suggests, it has many forests that are well-maintained and preserved.

Jharkhand is rich in natural resources and contributes to about 40% of the total mineral production of India.


Jharkhand state was formed in the year 2000, by carving out some regions from the state of Bihar, which it was previously part of – as a result of a demand for a separate state by the Adivasis and some non-tribal communities in the region.

Jharkhand was formed along with 2 other states - Uttaranchal and Chhattisgarh which were carved out of Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh respectively the same year.

Ranchi, the largest city in the carved-out region was made the official capital of Jharkhand.


Jharkhand has about 578 cities and towns. Ranchi, is its capital city.

Other major cities and towns of Jharkhand include: Jamshedpur, Bokaro (steel city), Dhanbad, Deogarh, Hazaribagh, Dumka, Ramgarh cantonment, Daltonganj.


The state of Jharkhand has a population of about 3.19 Crores (as of 2020). The religious people here mostly follow Hinduism (67.8% people), followed by Islam (14.5%) and Christianity (4.3%). Sarnaism (a religion or tradition of worshipping a village deity) is also followed by more than 12% of the population.


Jharkhand is known for its bright and peppy traditions, intriguing culture, paintings and vivid art scene, and festive celebrations soaked in traditions.

The important festivals of Jharkhand include: Karam, Sarna and Nawakhani (major harvest festivals of the state) and Sohrai (a cattle festival). Other common festivals like Dussehra and Diwali are also celebrated in the state.

Jharkhand has many folk dances that are performed regularly in the state, such as: Jhumair, Chhau, and Domkach. The state also has a tattoo tradition called Godna, which is part of its culture.


Hindi is the official language of the state of Jharkhand. Besides Hindi, people in different regions within the state have their own languages and dialects, such as: Nagpuri, Khortha, Kurmali, Magahi and Bhojpuri.


The staple foods of Jharkhand are rice, dal (pulses) and vegetables, especially and tubers (potatoes, yams).

Popular dishes from the cuisine of Jharkhand include:

  • Rotis (like Chilka Roti, Arsa Roti) – Flatbreads made of unleavened doughs of rice flour on “tawa” pans).
  • Mard Jhor – A dish of herbs cooked in rice starch.
  • Aaru ki sabzi – A curry made with a tuber vegetable found exclusively in Jharkhand.
  • Sanai phool ka bharta – A dish made of a variety of edible flowers called Sanai - popular in rural areas of Jharkhand
  • Tilkut – A biscuit made with pounded sesame-seeds and jaggery or melted sugar.
  • Maduwa Khassi – A dish made with mutton that is smoked with its skin intact – usually served with rice.


Trains, Planes and Buses are major modes of inter-city transportation within Jharkhand. For travel within cities, there are many other modes such as buses, auto-rickshaws and private vehicles like 2-wheelers and cars, or even walking and cycling.

Airports – Jharkhand currently has only 2 functional airports – 1 domestic airport connecting to other states and cities in the country, and 1 International airport connecting to cities within the state as well as other parts of the country.

  • Birsa Munda Airport, Ranchi
  • Dhanbad Airport, Dhanbad

Railway Stations – Bihar has a total of 310 train terminals/railway stations (at least one for each city/town, and more than 1 in some cities) that connect to other cities and towns within the state as well as those in other states in the country. Some of the major train terminals and junctions in the state are:

  • Dhanbad Junction, Dhanbad
  • Tatanagar Junction, Patliputra
  • Bokaro Railway Station, Bokaro steel city
  • Madhupur Junction, Madhupur
  • Hatia Railway Station, Hatia
  • Ranchi Junction, Ranchi
  • Koderma Junction, Koderma

Bus Terminals – Jharkhand has many interstate buses run by private as well as government companies. These include “Jharkhand Paryatak” buses which can be boarded at stops/terminals that are available in every division and town in the state. The prominent town/city bus terminals in the state are located in almost every city and town in Jharkhand - they can be easily found and are conveniently accessible.


Jharkhand is known for its waterfalls, elegant temples, National Parks and of course, forests. Some interesting places to visit and explore in Jharkhand are:

  • Jain temple of Parasnath Hill (A popular Jain pilgrimage site situated on the top of a mountain).
  • Ranchi the capital city (Ranchi lake, Rock garden).
  • Hundru falls and Dassam falls in Ranchi (Ranchi is famous for its waterfalls and greenery).
  • Jamshedpur (Founded by Jamshedji Tata, a well-known industrialist, this is the first well-planned Industrial city in the whole of India. A city where India’s first private iron and steel company was established; also has beautiful views with hills, lakes, temples and parks).
  • The Baidyanath Dham or Baidyanath Temple in Deogarh – A pilgrimage spot (one of India’s 12 “Jyotirlingas”).
  • Coal mines in Dhanbad – Coal mining is a main source of Jharkhand’s economy is Dhanbad is its coal mine capital.
  • Bokaro steel Plant – An ancient steel plant; India’s first steel plant under its Independence (Swadeshi) movement.
  • The Kelaghagh Dam – A beautiful dam surrounded by picturesque hills, located near a town called “Simdega” – a boat ride in this place is highly recommended!
  • Betla National Park – A well-known national park in the state, located in Betla, it houses many elephants and tigers.
  • Dalma Wildlife Sanctuary – A wildlife sanctuary located in Jamshedpur, and having one of the largest populations of Indian elephants.


Some great places in Bihar for a weekend getaway or short vacation are –

  • Palamu – A district with fertile stretches of land, rich wildlife and greenery, located at about 185km from Ranchi; great for nature and wildlife enthusiasts.
  • Bokaro – A city that is mainly comprised of valleys and streams. Also is one of the most industrialised zones in the country – has a large steel factory; a lovely place 110km to spend the weekend.
  • Chatra - This is a place away from the buzz of the city (about 130 km away from Ranchi) having scenic locations including many waterfalls (like Bichikiliya, Duari, Khaya Banaroo, Keridah, Maloodah, Dumer Sumer, Goa, Barura Sharif and Gogri), greenery and forests.


Jharkhand has a lot to offer the adventure lovers too. There are many hilly terrains and landscapes in the state that have slowly become hubs of adventurous experiences, such as –

  • Rock climbing (in Jamshedpur, Giridih)
  • Trekking and Hiking (in Ranchi, Jamshedpur, Hazaribagh, Chaibasa)
  • Water Skiing, Water rafting, Kayaking (at Kanke dam, Dimna lake, Barakar river)
  • Paragliding, Parasailing, Hot air ballooning (at Morabadi ground, Ranchi)


Some places of historical significance Jharkhand that will interest history and archaeology enthusiasts as well as photography lovers are –

  • Terracotta temples of Maluti
  • Ketunga Dham
  • Betla Fort, Daltonganj
  • Palamau fort, Daltonganj
  • Seraikela Palace, Hazaribagh

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