Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh

Named as the ‘Land of the Dawn-lit-Mountains’ and one of the Seven Sisters of the Eastern states of India, Arunachal Pradesh is the farthest state of India and the first Indian soil to kiss the warmth of the rising sun. Nestled on the tip of the northeast border of India with its borders touching China, Bhutan, and Myanmar, this meadow of greenery is endowed with dazzling assortment of flora and fauna, which includes more than 500 rare species of Orchids in its dense jungles, and breathtaking landscape that never seizes to make the visitors spell bound and lure them to visit this magical land again and again.

The spectacular beauty of Arunachal Pradesh is made up of not only eye soothing flora and fauna, but its fog covered hills, sparkling waters, gurgling waterfalls, and the crisp wind that surrounds the place all add up to its allure. The state of Arunachal Pradesh has been mentioned in various mythological and Hindu scriptures such as the literature of Kalika Purana and the Mahabharata. Ruled by many different dynasties and kingdom, Arunachal Pradesh India is a beautiful land with numerous historical legacies and archaeological remains, vibrant culture, delectable cuisines, and colorful festivals, which bear a testament to its rich cultural legacy.Itanagar is the capital city of Arunachal Pradesh, and it is the 14th largest state of India area-wise.

Arunachal Pradesh Population and Language

Arunachal Pradesh is the least populated state of India with a population of 15.5 lakhs (1.55 million) currently. Aunachal Pradesh is covered with forests by one-third of habitat area within the Himalayan biodiversity and covering a total area of 83, 743 sq. km and ranks 14h largest in India. Major population in Arunachal Pradesh consists of Schedule Tribes who speak about 50 different languages and dialects, most belonging to the Tibeto-Burman branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. Some of the languages and dialects spoken here are Nyishi, Adi, Dafla, Gallong, Tangsa, Khamti, Hill Miri, and Tagin. Most of these languages and dialects are incomprehensible and thus, Assamese, Hindi, and English are used as mediator languages by people to communicate to different communities in the state or with the tourists. Nagamese language is widely used a link language in some areas.


Arunachal Pradesh is home varied ethnic groups of people, most of which are associated with the Tibet and western Myanmar with over two-thirds of the state’s population designated as Scheduled Tribes. The western Arunachal Pradesh is inhabited by Nissi, Sherdukpen, Aka, Monpa, Apa Tani, and Hill Miri as the main tribes while the Adi, who comprise the largest tribal group of the state, live in the central region. The northeastern hills are inhabited by the Mishmi and the Wancho, Nocte, and Tangsa are concentrated in the southeastern district of Tirap.

Apart from the tribes, the population in Arunachal Pradesh also consists of immigrants from Bangladesh, as well as Assam, Nagaland, and other states of India. The people here usually share a similar kind of lifestyle and engage in occupation such as farming, hunting, fishing, and gathering forest products to cater to their daily needs and supplement their diet.

Arunachal Pradesh History

Arunachal Pradesh is said to be in existence since the pre-historic era from the time of Ramayana and Mahabharata and has been ruled by several kings and kingdoms. Between 500 B.C. to 600 A.D., the area was reigned by Monpa kingdom. After that, the northern part was under Bhutan and Tibet whereas the other parts were under the supervision of Ahom and Assamese till British annexation in the year 1858.

In 1912-13, an agreement was made by the British Indian government with the native people of the Himalayas of northeastern India for setting up the Balipara frontier tract in the west, the Sadiya frontier tract in the east, and the Abor and Mishmi hills and the Tirap frontier tract in the south. Together the tracts formed the North-East Frontier Agency, which was renamed as Arunachal Pradesh in 1972.


The cultural heritage of Arunachal Pradesh is immensely varied in the sense that the state has 26 major tribes which includes the sub-tribes as well. Every tribe is different in their own ways, lifestyle, customs, and traditions which make up the vibrant and joyous culture of Arunachal Pradesh. The major tribes of Arunachal Pradesh are Adi, Aka, Galo, Apatani, Nyishi, Tagins, Bori, and Bokar, etc. who follow the Donyi-Polo religion with the Sun and Moon as their presiding deities. Tibetan influenced Monpa and Sherdukpen tribe are nestled in the West Kameng and Tawang district and the Khampti and Singpho tribes are settled in the Lohit district. These four major tribes follow Mahayana and Hinayana sects of Buddhism, while the rest of the tribes follow the ancient customs of animal worship.

Major Cities

The major cities of Arunachal Pradesh in terms of area, GDP, and revenue are:

  • Pasighat
  • Itanagar
  • Margherita
  • Along
  • Tezu
  • Ziro
  • Khonsa
  • Tawang
  • Basar
Tourist Places in Arunachal Pradesh

Being the ‘Land of Dawn-Lit Mountains’, Arunachal Pradesh is a breathtaking landscape of lush green fields, guzzling waters, and smokey snow-clad mountains. Apart from its beautiful landscape, here are some of the best places to visit in Arunachal Pradesh:

  • Tawang – At a height of 3048m, Tawang is a historical monastery and is known for being the birthplace of the 6th Dalai Lama, Tsangyang Gyatso.
  • ZiroValley – The land of festival celebrations with a balmy climate, Ziro is a quaint and spectacular village town and a peace seeker’s paradise known for its pine hills and rice fields.
  • Bhalukpong – Aside from being a natural paradise, Bhalukpong offers several wildlife and adventure sport experiences complimenting its natural beauty.
  • Tirap – Wish gushing rivulets, stunning Orchids, and the crisp and fresh air, Tirap heals the soul with its authenticity, welcoming tribals, festivals, and the flawless artwork worth admiring.
  • Itanagar – Being the capital of the state, immerse in the historical heritage and the modern lifestyle of Arunachal Pradesh with a touch of spirituality, culture, scenic views, and pleasant weather.
  • Roing – Roing means cool and refreshing in local language and true to its name, the town is a beautiful and peaceful place for cultural enthusiasts, trekkers, and history buffs.
  • Bomdila – It is a quaint village town away from the hustle-bustle of the city and is surrounded by lush green foliage along with some fascinating places to visit such as wildlife parks, monasteries, sunset viewpoint, etc.
  • Anini – A town with pleasant climatic conditions and stunning scenic locations, Anini is one of the favorites among locals and tourists for its fog covered landscapes and wildlife sanctuaries.
  • Pasighat – A beautiful town tucked along Siang River Valleys and Himalayas, Pasighat is one of the most visited tourist places where you can indulge in fun activities such as rafting, fishing, angling, boating, wildlife safari, trekking, etc.
  • Changlang – Changlang is one of the major tourist destinations in Arunachal Pradesh with many places to visit and a vibrant culture to please the wanderer in you.
  • Aalo – A quaint little town know for its orange orchards, Aalo is an ideal getaway with streams of blue water, bridges, gardens, and grasslands to offer you peace and solitude.
Places to Visit in Arunachal Pradesh
  • Namdapha National Park – The third largest national park of the country area-wise with several species of endangered animals and birds and high-altitude spots overlooking the landscape.
  • Nuranang Falls – Mostly unknown and virgin place, Nuranag Falls fall from a height of 100 meters with a white sheet of water and offers a pristine and beautiful experience.
  • Madhuri Lake – A scintillating and pristine lake, also known as Sangetsar Lake, is one of the remotest lakes of the country with beautiful panoramic views and a pleasant weather.
  • Sela Pass – It is a mountain pass which is covered with snow all year round. It is considered sacred by Buddhists, and it is believed that there are 101 lakes around it.
  • Tawang Monastery – Built in 1680-1681 and the birthplace of the 6th Dalai Lama, Tawang Monastery is one of the major monasteries here and is a three storey building housing scriptures and a huge statue of Lord Buddha.
  • Bumla Pass – It is a high-altitude pass situated at the Indo-China border and is covered with thick snow year-round. Trek through the pass and witness the high-altitude lake and the breathtaking panorama.
  • Talley Valley – One of the best places for trekking, the trail to Talley valley is stunning in itself and you will come across Pangey valley and Ziro valley which are home to Apatanis people.
  • Parasuram Kund Temple – Located in Lohit district, a temple site where Lord Parasuram washed away his sins and Lord Krishna married Rukmini here.
  • Golden Pagoda – It is a fine specimen of the Burmese architecture with a golden façade where you can observe the Buddhist culture from a closer distance.
  • Akashganga or Malinithan Temple – Dedicated to Goddess Durga exhibiting Odisha style architecture, this is one of the Shakti Peetha where one of the pieces of Goddess Sati fell after she burst into flames.
Museums and Art Galleries

The museums and art galleries of Arunachal Pradesh bear rich cultural and historical evidence and showcase the modern art forms from the budding artists of the state. Some of the famous museums and art galleries of Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Jawaharlal Nehru State Museum – Located in Itanagar, the museum is one of the oldest museums of the state established to commemorate the birth anniversary of Pandit Nehru. It houses some relics and archaeological remains from the state.
  • Khonsa Museum – This museum is known to exhibit tribal artifacts and offers an insight into the cultural lifestyle of the people of Khonsa.
  • Tezu District Museum and Craft Center – The museum houses important artifacts including manuscripts, ornaments, paintings, weapons, and cane handicrafts, etc.
  • Chimchoo Art Gallery – Established not long ago, this art gallery showcases contemporary art and paintings from budding artist from the state.
Festivals/Events in Arunachal Pradesh

The state’s cultural lifestyle is dominated by vibrant and colorful festivals most of which are celebrated as a mark of thanksgiving to the Almighty for offering them a good harvest. Some of the most famous events and festivals in Arunachal Pradesh are:

  • Zero Music Festival – The Zero Music festival is one of the best music festivals in India featuring musicians from the country and abroad and also showcases local talent from all 7 states of the northeast.
  • Siang River Festival – This festival is organized to celebrate communal harmony in the state and is an attempt to promote eco-tourism and offer adventure and fun activities such as boat race, river rafting, food stalls, folk dances, cultural dances, paragliding, hot air balloon, etc.
  • Pangsau Pass Winter Festival – Celebrated in Nampong in Changlang district, it is a three-day fest organized in January where people perform on folk songs and put-up handicraft and handloom articles from distinct parts of the state for exhibition and sale.
  • Solung – A socio-religious festival of the Adis, it is an agricultural festival celebrated after sowing of seeds to seek the blessings of the gods of harvest. The festival has three main parts and is celebrated to pacify the gods for protection, well-being, and good harvest.
  • Nyokum Yullow – It is the festival of the Nyishi tribe and is celebrated for the harmony and prosperity of the people. It is a two-day festival where the priest performs the major rituals and prayers are offered to the spirits to bring prosperity to people.
  • Tawang Festival – This three-day extravagant festival is organized by the government to showcase the rich cultural heritage of the state and to encourage the adventure tourism as well. Some of the highlights include – Buddhist religious functions, traditional monastic dances, games and sports, films and documentary, handloom and handicraft, food festival, photography and painting exhibition, cultural evenings, and live shows, etc.
  • Dree Festival – This festival involves the sacrifice of fowls, eggs, and animals to the gods to satisfy them. The gods Danyi, Metii, Tamu, and Harnia are prayed for protection and prosperity, protection of plants from pests, controlling famine and epidemics, and keeping the soil stable respectively.
  • Boori Boot – Celebrated by the Hill-Miris tribe in the las t week of February for three days, where men, women, and children wear traditional attires and make sacrificial offerings to appease the gods.
Arunachal Pradesh

Bask in the majesty of the natural spectacle of Arunachal Pradesh where the dawn-lit mountains greet the chirping birds, the sound of the cascading waterfalls and gurgling rivers plays a symphony, and the fresh air interacts with the scent of herbs and wildflowersthat offers a soulful reprieve from the monotony of frantic life.

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