Arunachal Pradesh

Arunachal Pradesh is a state in Northeast India. It is one of the seven sisters – (North-east India has 7 states collectively known as seven Sisters).

The state also shares borders with other neighbouring countries Bhutan and China.


Arunachal Pradesh is home to many tribes including the Tani – which have 5 sub-groups (Nyishi, Adi, Galo, Apatani and Tagin). The people of these tribal groups reportedly used to trade swords and other metals with neighbouring Tibetans in exchange for meat and wool. 

In the medieval period, between 500 BC to 600 AD, the north-western parts of this land came under the control of a certain Monpa kingdom of Monyul, and the remaining parts of the state, including the foothills and the plains, were under the rule of the Chutia Kings of Assam.

During British rule in the 19th and 20th centuries, it became a part of The North-East Frontier Agency – which included most of the North-east Indian states. Post-independence, this land was separated and renamed as Arunachal Pradesh by the Chief Commissioner of Arunachal Pradesh. It was declared a union territory on 20 January 1972, but finally in 1987, Arunachal Pradesh became an independent state of India.


Arunachal Pradesh has more than 250 cities and towns, which are grouped into districts.

Some popular cities and towns of Arunachal include: Itanagar, Naharlagun, Khonsa, Roing, Ziro Valley, Tawang.


Arunachal Pradesh is home to people belonging to several cultural groups and tribes. The state has a population of 17.12 Lakhs (as of 2020). A large number of people here follow Christianity (more than 30%) and Hinduism (also around 30%).

The state consists of people of around 12 tribes, namely   Adi (Abor), Aka, Apatani, Nyishi, Tagin, Galo, Khampti, Mishmi, Momba (Monpa), Naga tribe, Sherdukpen and Singpho.


Arunachal Pradesh is home to several cultural groups and tribes. And due to this, the place is brimming with colorful vibes most of the time. Many folklores that have been passed down from centuries about the land and its history and beliefs are still popular and reflected in their arts.

The state is known for its traditional handicrafts, fishing and hunting tools, which are hand-made and work skilfully.

Ponung/Ponu is a dance/art form of the state which is usually performed in groups by both men and women, for the celebration of joyous events in future.


English is the official language of communication in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, but Hindi is also largely spoken. Apart from these, many families speak Nepali, Bengali or Assamese too.


Arunachalese cuisine is the cuisine of Arunachal Pradesh state, and it mostly consists of bamboo shoots, fish, meat, green vegetables, wild herbs and a special kind of chili called king chili. The staple cereal is rice, which is eaten with most meals here.

Some popular dishes from Arunachalese cuisine include:

  • Pika Pila (a pickle made with pork fat and king chili)
  • Bamboo shoot curry
  • Apong (a fermented rice beer)
  • Chura (a curry/stew made with a special Indian cheese and vegetables)
  • Momos/steamed dumplings
  • Pehak (a chutney made with fermented soya bean and king chili, and usually served with steamed rice)


The major modes of inter-city transportation within Arunachal Pradesh are Trains, and Buses and for inter-state travel, the state has airports connecting to cities in other states. For travel within cities, there are many other modes such as taxi/cabs, buses, and private vehicles like 2-wheelers and cars, or even walking and cycling.

Airports - Arunachal Pradesh has few airports, which are mostly domestic (with flights connecting to cities in other states in the country. Some of the popular airports in the state are –

  • Tezu Airport
  • Paisghat Airport
  • Daporijo Airfield
  • Ziro Airport

Trains - Arunachal has 3 main train terminals or stations from where trains to various cities, towns and villages within Arunachal Pradesh or surrounding states can be boarded.

  • Gumto Train Station
  • Naharlagun Train Station
  • Bhalukpong Train Station

Bus Terminals - Arunachal Pradesh has its own line of state-run APSTS buses which provide the connection between all the cities and towns within Arunachal Pradesh. These include both between luxury and semi-luxury buses and every town and village also has its own bus station, where these buses stop, and people can board or get down buses at. The prominent town/city bus terminals in the state are located in every major city like Itanagar, Naharlagun, Tawang, Gumto, Pasighat, Bomdila, Dirang, etc.


Arunachal Pradesh is a hub of natural wonders and is full of valleys with stunning views, forests, greenery, and ecological spots that nature lovers will find delightful. Some such places to visit/explore in Arunachal include:

  • Talle Valley
  • Dibang valley
  • Bomdila (a scenic land located 8000 feet above sea level)
  • Itanagar – the capital city
  • Tawang – consists of many Tibetan monasteries including one that is the largest in India
  • Sela Pass - a mountain pass situated over 13,000 ft above ground level.


Arunachal Pradesh has many pretty towns, villages and hill stations, which are great for a mini getaway during weekends to spend some quiet time close to nature. Some great options for a weekend getaway within Arunachal Pradesh are –

  • Itanagar (Capital city of the state and a major hub connecting other important places around the state – also has many interesting things to do and see)
  • Daporijo.
  • Tawang.
  • Pasighat.
  • Bhalukpong.
  • Ziro (a small village in a valley, which low population)
  • Bomdila.
  • Dirang.


Arunachal Pradesh lies in hilly terrains and also has the majestic Brahmaputra river flowing through it, and hence offers many cool sports for the adventure lovers. Some adventure activities that can be done in Arunachal Pradesh are –

  • Mountain Biking (Motor biking)
  • White water rafting on Brahmaputra river
  • Trekking
  • Trekking
  • Paragliding
  • Camping on the hills


Following are some major places of historical importance in Arunachal Pradesh, that will interest History buffs. Most are located in the capital city of Itanagar –

  • Ita Fort, Itanagar
  • World War II Cemetery, Changlang
  • Gompa Temple, Itanagar
  • Jawaharlal Nehru Museum, Itanagar

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