The city of Jalandhar is situated in the Punjab state in northern India. The earliest city in Punjab is said to be Jalandhar, which was governed by the Hindus and the Mughals in turn. Known for its extensive cultural legacy, historical sites, and traditional values, Jalandhar city was known during the British Raj as Prasthala and Jullundur.
This ancient town has undergone significant industrialization and has emerged as a significant hub of commerce. It is India's top producer of top-notch sporting goods. Jalandhar is frequently referred as as "the sports town." The majority of the sporting equipment produced in Jalandhar is exported to other nations.
The city is also known for turning forth some of the top athletes in the nation. The city and its environs have produced several incredibly prosperous businesses. Furthermore, well-known are its handloom items, rubber products, electric products, car parts, sewing machine manufacturers, and rerolling mills for steel and iron. It is one of the largest vernacular press hubs in India.
Places to Visit / tourist places
- Rangla Punjab Haveli :
The Rangla Punjab Haveli in Jalandhar serves as a display for Punjabi culture, traditional way of life, and diverse art forms. From live puppet shows to the ancient dances of Bhangra and Gidda, this cultural museum and showhouse aims to guide you through every magnificent facet of Punjabi culture and history. Performances known as Kuthputli and even the exhibiting of traditional Punjabi goods like phulkari and juttis that you can take home.
- Devi Talab Mandir :
200 years old and situated in Jalandhar, Punjab, is the Devi Talab Mandir, a Hindu temple. It is located in the city's centre, which draws thousands of visitors from across the globe. One of India's 51 Shakti Peethas, Durga is the principal deity there. The temple was recently refurbished, however the original design has not changed significantly. Together with it, new architecture resembling the Amarnath cave has been built inside the temple grounds.
- Jang-e-Azadi Memorial :
Jang-e-Azadi is located in Kartarpur, Punjab, which is on the Amritsar-Jalandhar Highway. One of the major initiatives undertaken by the state is a newly built museum that covers 25 acres of land. It serves as a monument in remembrance of all the Punjabis who gave their lives in the struggle for Indian independence. Also, it provides a broad overview of Punjabi and Indian culture.
- Sodal Mandir :
A temple with the name of Sodal Mandir may be found in Jalandhar, Punjab. Baba Sodal, the shrine's deity, is adored by about a billion pilgrims. Every year on Anant Chodas, also known as Anant Chaturdashi, a fair is conducted at the Sodal Temple where people from all over the nation of all religions, castes, & creeds gather to enjoy the festivities & obtain the blessings of Baba Sodal.
- Talhan :
The Jalandhar District in the Indian state of Punjab is home to the lovely village of Talhan. It covers a surface area of 369 acres (1.49 KM2). The village's current population is 2.946 people. Sikhism and Hinduism are the two main religions in the country. This little village is well known for its Gurudwaras, particularly the Talhan Shaheeb Gurudwara, where people go to pray before leaving the country. Another important reason for people to visit the region is the Shaheedi Jor Mela, an annual festival held in honour of Shaheed Baba Nihal Singh.
- St. Mary's Cathedral :
In the Punjabi city of Jalandhar Cantonment, Mall Road is the location of St. Mary's Cathedral. It is a province of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Delhi. Rev. Fr. John McDonnell of the Order of Friars Minor Capuchin constructed it for the first time in 1847 as a symbol of India's secular culture (O.F.M.CAP). After violent protests against secularism, the old Church was demolished in 1857, just a few years after Independence. Pope John Paul II later authorised the Church's re-foundation, and the Bishop of Jalandhar, Rev. Dr.Symbhorian Keeprathlaid, lay the cornerstone. On October 19, 1989, the Hindu holiday of Diwali marked its opening. Along the Cathedral's perimeter are flowerbeds, gardens, and a building called "Rosary Villa" that has a collection of images of Jesus and Mary.
- Wonderland :
The Punjabi city of Jalandhar is home to Wonderland, an entertainment and water park. It is situated 6 kilometres from the Jalandhar Bus Station along Nakadar Road, which follows Wadala Chowk. The park serves as a gathering spot for attractions including rides and a waterpark as well as places to dine, watch entertainment, and shop. Its 11 acres are filled with attractions for holidaymakers, including a wave pool and an aqua dance floor with Punjabi pop music. The retail centre is a go-to place for children's funny toys and adult gifts.
- Harleen Water Fun Park :
At Jalandhar, on Hoshiarpur Road, is where you can find Harleen Water Fun Park. Because of its inexpensive schedule, it is one of the most popular summer getaways. Families, couples, and kids are all welcome in the park, which serves as a haven from Jalandhar's summer heat. There are six built-in pools that are separate for women and children, and the area is encircled by water slides and other amusements. The park is best visited in the summer months when Jalandhar's temperatures reach and exceed 30 degrees celsius.
- TR Enjoy World :
An amusement park called TR Fun World is situated in Kangniwal, Jalandhar, Punjab. There are several water slides at the park, along with other things to do for both kids and adults. There is a food court there where you can get snacks and drinks. Even though the park's upkeep has been a major setback, it nevertheless draws a lot of residents and occasionally visitors each year.
Nightlife (Pubs, clubs, lounges)
- The Brew master :
When it comes to pubs and bars in Jalandhar, one of the most well-known names is The Brewmaster. The business includes a number of more locations in towns including Ludhiana, Mohali, and Amritsar. The restaurant is well known for its welcoming atmosphere for families and serves excellent meals for both the appetisers and the main courses. When enjoying your freshly made beer here, the rooftop terrace is the greatest location to be seated. The cost for two people, including beer, is about 2000 Rupees. That is the sensation that comes closest to having a cosy feeling at home.
- The Brew Haus :
Another small brewery on the list, Brew Hauz is a favourite hangout for young beer enthusiasts in Amritsar. This bar has done its research in terms of what the Punjabi clientele actually requires, as evidenced by the fact that it has two more locations in the cities of Ludhiana and Amritsar. American Lager, Dry Irish Scout, Honey Weizen, and winter lager are some of their newly created beers. Also, it's one of the few places where you can get Bavaria beer in both its Gold and Light versions. All Jalandhar city beer aficionados may readily visit it because it is situated on the Garha Road close to the Sahota Complex.
- Cheers The Pub Bar and Restaurant :
Anybody for Chicken Jackson? So, odds are that if you've heard of this eatery, you've heard about the history of the Chicken Jackson that they serve. The best part of this restaurant is their really delicious appetisers, which also manage to be reasonably priced. This tavern and pub in Jalandhar, which also serves as a restaurant, is the ideal location if you need to bring your family. The location is convenient, and the atmosphere is excellent.
- Hooterz Pub & Bar :
This Jalandhar pub's atmosphere, which is akin to a sports bar, will draw you in. You may play pool with your buddies at this establishment, which has a pool table. They make sure they are visible to every man in Jalandhar who wants to watch every India cricket match while sipping on their preferred beer. There are several options available for draught beer, including towers, pitchers, and standard cans.
- Blue’s Pub Bar and Restaurant :
The Blue's Pub and Bar in Jalandhar can be your best option if you're seeking for a cheap location to go out and drink with your buddies. Because to the blue LED lighting, the atmosphere is mostly blue, staying true to the name and contributing to the establishment's charm. The servers and the rest of the personnel are kind and thoughtful, and the meal is delivered quickly.
- Taj Bar and Restaurant :
One of the family-friendly spots on the list is Taj Bar and Restaurant. The location is convenient in terms of price and provides a nice atmosphere for social gatherings with friends and family. The bar menu isn't extremely large, but you should be able to select your preferred beverage with ease. The cuisine at this Jalandhar bar definitely elevates the experience one may have there, and it is its best feature.
Street food to try in Jalandhar
- Jalebi :
When you hear the sounds of sizzles spreading as the halwai pour the batter into the heated oil and create flawless spirals, when the finished product is lavishly dipped in the saffron sugar syrup, when you take a mouthful of that scorching hot, freshly produced jalebi and fight the impulse to close your eyes to stay in the moment You can be certain that these are Jalandhar jalebis as long as you can. Whether the occasion—a wedding, a holiday, or just a "meethakhaane ka mood"—jalebi is the perfect dessert. Jalebis are a favourite traditional dessert and greatest street food in Jalandhar that are made with all the original ingredients, from saffron and ghee to cardamom and curd.
- Gol Gappe :
It says, "Bhaiya thoda aur teekha." Locals consider golgappas to be their all-time favourite food. When people consider street food, golgappe—also referred to as pani puri in various parts of India—comes to mind first. Gol gappas are bite-sized crispy fried spheres with a hollow core filled with a combination of chickpeas and potatoes that are served with spicy, flavoured water with a dash of tamarind chutney. The jaljeera water has a kick that is unequalled by any other Jalandhar street dish because to the spices and toppings.
- Samosa :
The hot and delectable samosas are one of the staple street meals that are presented to visitors in any home. Samosas are a triangle-shaped street food snack that are cooked in hot oil and served with either sweet tamarind chutney or spicily spiced pudina dip. They are filled with a flavorful blend of potatoes, cottage cheese, peas, onions, lentils, other real exotic spices. In Jalandhar, samosas are among the greatest street foods, making it hard for anybody to eat just one. There is never enough of these delectable delicacies. Sanu ki.
- Chhole Bhature :
Well, the smell and the mouthwatering appearance of this street cuisine in Jalandhar are more than enough to make any tourist forget about their ongoing diets. It is really difficult to resist salivating when a flat piece of dough is dipped into the kadhai and a well-puffed bhatura emerges out of that appliance. Chhole Bhature, a popular street meal in Jalandhar, is eaten with spicy, zesty, flavor-packed chickpeas that take the palate on a fascinating gastronomic journey with each mouthful. A few raw onions and pungent pickle are served with Chhole Bhature, which elevates the already outstanding gastronomic experience even more.
- Chhole Kulche :
Amritsari kulchas, another well-known street snack in Jalandhar, are popular among residents. They come with mouthwatering chhole that has a hint of acidity to it and are stuffed with a variety of contents. Chhole Kulche, a street snack that is also a mainstay in Punjabi households, is one dish that everyone looking to have a complete understanding of Punjabi culture must consume. One of the best street foods to consume in Jalandhar is the steamed hot kulchas, which are oozing with butter, and the chhole, which has hints of lemon in every bite.
- Butter Chicken :
The "murgas pel ke" is considered the final course for Punjabis. One such food that people often consume without thinking is butter chicken. The majority of the time, butter chicken is eaten with butter naan and is also referred to as Murga Makhani. The grilled chicken is marinated and then served with a rich sauce comprised of tomato, butter, and unique spices to create the creamy, tangy butter chicken. When it comes to Jalandhar's street food tour, Butter Chicken, which was unintentionally created by a cook in the 1950s, is currently at the top of the list.
- Tandoori Chicken :
Tandoori Chicken is without a doubt one street item in Jalandhar that goes fantastically with a bottle of cold beer. Every mouthful of the soft chicken has a smoky taste that makes guests want more and more and makes their mouths quiver. This meal is unique in that it features fragrant flavours and poultry that is presented in immaculate condition. When one catches a whiff of this delicious appetiser, the first thought that comes to mind is Tandoori Chicken, which is typically served with handmade mint and coriander green chutney.
- Lassi :
Lassi is the most reviving and naturally cold beverage ever, and it's a fantastic and healthy method to combat the scorching heat in Punjab. The curd is whipped into lassi, a smooth, creamy beverage that can be either sweet or salty. The lassi, which can be found throughout Jalandhar, is a must-try for tourists looking to quench their thirst. Give this Indian drink a try and stop drinking soft drinks and mocktails.
- Best Western Plus Jalandhar :
This four-star facility offers four dining options in addition to a complete complement of recreational amenities like a spa, gym, and outdoor pool. There is a flat-screen cable TV and complimentary Wi-Fi in each room. The air-conditioned rooms' modern, neutral-colored decor include a safe, a tea/coffee maker, and a minibar. A hairdryer and amenities are provided in private bathrooms. Just a 10-minute drive away, the Best Western Plus Jalandhar provides complimentary pickup from the Jalandhar Train Station. The Imam Nasir Mausoleum is 2.5 miles away, while the Wagah Border is 17 miles away.
- Sarovar Portico- Jalandhar :
There are four different types of contemporary rooms at Sarovar Portico in Jalandhar. Couples travelling together or business travellers would appreciate the Deluxe Double Bed Room and Deluxe Twin Bed Room, respectively. For those seeking a luxurious stay, suites are ideal. Enjoy your meal at Café 181, an on-site restaurant serving delectable multi-cuisine dishes. The Lounge is a stylish bar where visitors may unwind with cool drinks. Our hotel's banquet spaces are furnished with modern technology, making it simple to plan both professional and social gatherings.
- Hotel President :
The Hotel President is located in the northern Indian city of Jalandhar. This location is regarded as the ideal setting for a wedding. 300 people can be accommodated simultaneously in the large, well equipped function hall. In discussing the stunning décor of this location, it is important to keep in mind that this dining hall was designed for weddings.
- Treebo Trend Red Petal :
The Tagore Hospital Heart Care Center is beside this hotel in Jalandhar, which also provides free breakfast and Wi-Fi to its visitors. The three levels of this hotel are home to 10 luxurious rooms. The accommodation comes with a variety of amenities, including an air conditioner, an electric kettle, a flat-screen TV, a comfy bed, an intercom, a sitting area, and an attached bathroom with hot and cold water.
- Treebo Trip Oasis Inn Grain Market :
You may reserve non-smoking rooms here. The entire area of the lodging has access to the Internet. The front desk is open round-the-clock. You can order meals and drinks to be delivered to a guest's room. There is parking available on the hotel's property if you decide to go by vehicle. Visa and Mastercard are two examples of bank cards that travellers can use.
- Aar Kay Vaishno Dhaba :
The top-rated restaurant in Jalandhar's Bhargo Nagar is Aar Kay Vaishno Dhaba. For large events, they transport food to homes and provide a varied menu for vegetarians. The food is excellent, and they offer anything from tea paranthas to traditional Indian fare.
- Barbeque Nation :
Barbecue Nation is located in Jalandhar's model community of Prakash Nagar on Rainbow Road. One of Jalandhar's top-rated restaurants is barbecue. The environment is wonderful, and the personnel is friendly and helpful. There is also a parking facility here.
- Sagar Ratna :
On a replica town road in Lajpat Nagar, Jalandhar, is where you'll find Sagar Ratna Restaurant. The restaurant is well-known for its pure vegetarian fare and south Indian food, and customers enjoy quick and pleasant service.
- Carobar :
In Jalandhar, the Carobar Restaurant is next to the Shangri-La Hotel. They provide both vegetarian and meat options. Both the atmosphere and the service at the restaurant are amazing. The ideal crowd for the Carobar Restaurant includes loved ones, family, and friends.
- Love Italy :
Gujral Nagar, Ambala, is home to the Love Italy Restaurant. Infrastructure is present at Love Italy Restaurant to a certain extent, and sanitization procedures are followed. Together with unique oriental and opulent Italian meals, they serve genuine Italian and continental cuisines. They feature an outside eating area with a coastal café feel from Europe.
- The Garden Restaurant :
The Garden Restaurant can be found at Jyoti Nagar, Jalandhar, on Urban State phase 2 road across from Puda Market. Every age group and taste are catered to on the menu. There are three sections of the restaurant—outdoor, indoor, and open—and a separate area for a private meeting.
- The Great Kabab Factory :
The Big Kabab Factory is located near Jalandhar's Sehdev Bazaar. They have excellent meals, both in terms of quality and quantity. The area is a little cramped, and the service is likewise subpar.
- Pitstop American Dinner :
Model Town, Jalandhar, is home to the Pitstop American Dinner Restaurant. The restaurant's decor is elegant and beautiful. Their service is prompt, and one of their restaurant's most well-liked menu items is soup.
- Kanta Chhuri :
Located in Jalandhar's Adarsh Nagar lies the Kanta Chhuri Restaurant. The restaurant's extensive cuisine selection is all vegetarian. They provide wonderful meals and are situated in the centre of the city. The inside is likewise flawless.
- Vimpi’s :
Vimpi's Restaurant is located in Jalandhar next to the MBD Neopolis mall on G.T. road. They provide a wide selection of fast food, although less so of Indian cuisine. They provide prompt service, and the meal doesn't taste overly hot.
Malls to check out
- Mbd Neopolis Mall :
One of the best malls in Jalandhar is the MBD Neopolis mall. It features amazing food courts and restaurants, as well as several high-end and international apparel boutiques. Also, it features a PVR with four screens that is frequently used by families, couples, and moviegoers. Every other month, the mall also holds a variety of entertaining events for things like commercial promotions.
- Centrum Jyoti Mall :
The six-story Centrum Jyoti Mall, one of Jalandhar's most well-known shopping centres, has several high-end international apparel stores, boutiques, an entertainment area, and a children's play area. The shopping centre contains a rooftop food court, a club, a wedding venue, and designer jewellery shops. It may be referred to as the ideal setting for a fun-filled and engaging zone.
- Curo High Street Mall, Jalandhar :
The Curo High Street mall, another important retail area in Jalandhar, is a favourite gathering spot for locals. The European-styled mall contains a reputable movie theatre as well as a good number of foreign apparel retailers. This area is the greatest for spending an evening with friends and family because it has wonderful food courts and entertainment zones.
- Viva Collage Mall :
Three stories and more than three acres make up Jalandhar's Viva Collage Mall. It is Jalandhar's first and only shopping centre featuring a multiplex with five screens. The shopping centre houses a wide variety of international apparel brand retailers, electronics and appliance stores, home décor stores, a multi-cuisine food court, and a free wifi zone. With such a large parking lot, parking is never an issue while visiting this location. Viva Mall draws a lot of customers from neighbouring cities including Nawanshahr, Banga, Nakodar, and Kartarpur since it is situated on the Phagwara Highway.
- Dlf Galleria Mall :
The mall in Jalandhar with a lovely curved glass front is called DLF Galleria. It is a well-known gathering place for the city's youth and fashionistas. A cinema, food courts, children's play areas, and an entertainment area are all included in the wonderfully constructed mall, which also has worldwide name retailers. Everything from pizzas, burgers, and luxury ice creams are served in this food court.
- Vasal Mall :
Vasal Mall is a prime location for leisure in Jalandhar, offering a wide variety of branded clothes and accessory stores, renowned restaurants and cafés, as well as entertainment alternatives including a movie theatre and play area. A large bazaar, a well-known Indian chain of groceries, is located in the mall along with major clothes stores.
Best places to shop
- Sadar Bazar :
Sadar Bazaar is a labyrinth for anybody who enjoys shopping for sparkly decorations, cheap jewellery, and attractive items to give as gifts to family and friends back home. Many bookshops can be found at Sadar Bazaar, making it a veritable gold mine for book enthusiasts. You may go to Sadar Bazar to reenergize yourself after a long day of shopping by indulging in some delicious street cuisine.
- Rainak Bazar :
You may get a wide range of clothing options for a variety of events at Rainak Bazar. Make every outfit important since life is brief and you may wear anyway makes you feel. A lot of stores selling everything from casual clothing to formal dress and traditional costume can be found in Rainak Bazaar, making shopping there enjoyable. You may discover the classic lehengas, sarees, salwar kameez, casual t-shirts, and sherwanis here.
- Model Town Market :
Expect to find designer stores, the newest fashion items, and a variety of mementos that you may bring home as gifts for your loved ones. Bring a piece of Punjab with you; this market is the ideal spot to learn about the region's unique fashion culture. Take a break at one of the numerous eateries in this market if you're exhausted after a long day of shopping.
- Maya Bazar :
Go to Maya Bazar if you enjoy collecting trinkets, colourful decorations, vintage jewellery, accessories, and accessories if you love collecting unusual and beautiful items. Stock your closet with lovely jewellery from this market, including bracelets, rings, and bangles. This store features a big selection of well chosen jewellery and other products for sale that are a deal for the money and will go nicely with your outfit.
Museums in Jalandhar
- Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum :
Azam Shaheed The Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum is located in the Shaheed-e-Azam ancestral hamlet, which is around 41 kilometres from Jalandhar to Nawanshahar-Banga Road. The Sardar Bhagat Singh Museum's history is presented here. On the 50th anniversary of Sardar Bhagat Singh's martyrdom, March 23, 1981, the village saw its opening. With the help of patriots and liberation warriors like Sardar Ajit Singh, Sardar Swaran Singh, and Shaheed-e-Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh, the historic village of Khatkar Kalan has gained notoriety. The historical elements of this museum contribute to its fame. It includes a number of documents and pieces related to Bhagat Singh, including pictures and letters with examples of his handwriting. Bhagat Singh's chattels and possessions are the subject of a piece of comprehensive information. In the museum, you may find inspiring Shaheed-e-Azam-related artefacts. History buffs must visit this museum. A tribute to the legendary figure is paid in the museum.
- Pushpa Gujral Science City :
On the Jalandhar-Kapurthala Road, on a 72-acre campus, lies the educational and entertainment complex known as Pushpa Gujral Science City. It includes robotics, a virtual reality gallery, a dinosaur park, 3D movies, a particularly created Fun Science Center, a climate Change Gallery, and much more. It also has flying simulators and earthquake simulators. The property even has a Health Gallery where visitors may stroll through a massive heart model in an effort to pique their healthy curiosity and interest in science. using touchscreen panels, audio and video displays, life-size sculptures, and interactive audio and video displays. Here, a cinema theatre shows a documentary on the freedom movement, and each night, a laser display happens.
Events / Festivals
- Baisakhi festival :
The harvesting season officially begins with the celebration of the Baisakhi holiday in April. The celebrations also commemorate Guru Gobind Singh's founding of the Sikh Khalsa society. Baisakhi is a festival that is widely observed and is distinguished by eating and revelry. The holidays of Diwali and Dusshera, as well as the anniversaries of the gurus' and saints' births, are all observed with fervour and devotion.
- Harballabh Sangeet Mela :
The popular Harballabh Sangeet Mela event is held in Jalandhar every year from December 27 to December 30. Swami Harballabh, the beloved Saint-Musician of Jalandhar, is remembered each year at the festival that is held on the premises of the Devi Talab Mandir. In honour of the child god, the Baba Sodal Mela is held every September. Devotees from all over the world pour into this fair that is held at Baba Sodal's Samadhi Sthan on the anniversary of his passing.
Gardens and Parks
- Nikku Park :
Just two rupees are required to enter this magnificent location. The city's cheapest little amusement park as a result is this one! It began as a lovely natural park, but over time, various fun and exhilarating rides were added to its grounds, making it more kid-friendly. A picnic on a Sunday is a great idea there. Children may keep themselves occupied on the rides while you rest in a grassy area surrounded by trees and flower shrubs. But, Sundays are busy days, so don't count on finding much alone while taking in this tranquilly.
- Nehru Park :
One of the best places for picnics and large gatherings is Nehru Garden. People come to this park in the morning to go for walks and jogs. The appeal of this location was increased during the most recent refurbishment when lavish lights and a musical fountain were added to the garden. In addition, the children's section has swings and slides where they may pass some time. The park's 3 acres of grounds provide adequate room for everyone to enjoy some quiet time for meditation or wandering.
Best time to visit
Jalandhar is best visited during the winter months of October to March. Within the range of 6 and 16 degrees Celsius, the daily average temperature falls during these months. When opposed to the sweltering summers and sticky monsoons, the weather is much better. The entire city is engulfed in a frigid wave. The numerous festivities that are observed in Jalandhar throughout the winter are another factor to take into account. The celebrations include Basant Panchami, Sankranti, and Lohri. It is advised against visiting Jalandhar during the summer months due to the oppressive heat. The wettest month is July, while the coldest is January. In Jalandhar, January is also the busiest month for tourism.
How to reach
- How to Fly to Jalandhar :
The closest airport to Jalandhar is Amritsar Airport, which lacks its own airport. It is around 75 kilometres from the city of Jalandhar. Amritsar is regularly served by flights operated by all major airlines to Indian cities such Mumbai, Delhi, Lucknow, etc. Amritsar is served by flights to international locations including Birmingham, Dubai, and Doha.
- How to Go by Bus to Jalandhar :
Major cities in north India are easily accessible from Jalandhar by frequent bus service. Buses from Jalandhar travel to cities including Chandigarh, Delhi, Amritsar, Jammu, Ambala, and Jaipur. To get to any location in the city, take a local bus from the bus depot in Jalandhar. By using Highway 1, it takes over 7 hours to traverse the 372 miles between Delhi and Jalandhar.
- How to Go by Train to Jalandhar :
One of Punjab's key rail hubs is Jalandhar City Railway Station on the Amritsar-Delhi railway route. Here, important trains including the Paschim Express, Delhi Amritsar Shatabdi, and Golden Temple Mail stop. Moreover, direct trains connect Jalandhar with Delhi, Kolkata, Varanasi, Patna, Guwahati, Jaipur, Jammu Tawi, etc.